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Effects of fish oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM

Abstract

Fish oils, containing omega-3 fatty acids (omega 3FAs), favorably influence plasma lipoproteins in nondiabetic humans and prevent the development of insulin resistance induced by fat feeding in rats. We studied the effects of fish oils in 10 subjects (aged 42-65 yr) with mild non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Subjects were fed a standard diabetic diet plus 1) no supplementation (baseline), 2) 10 g fish oil concentrate (30% omega 3FAs) daily, and 3) 10 g safflower oil daily over separate 3-wk periods, the latter two supplements being given in radom order by use of a double-blind crossover design. At the end of each diet period, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, and lipids were measured, and insulin sensitivity was assessed with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp performed with [3-3H]glucose. FBG increased 14% during fish oil and 11% during safflower oil supplementation compared with baseline (P less than .05), whereas body weight, fasting serum insulin levels, and insulin sensitivity were unchanged. The absolute increase in FBG during each supplementation period correlated with the baseline FBG (fish oil, r = .83, P less than .005); safflower oil, r = .75, P = .012). Fasting plasma triglyceride levels decreased during fish oil supplementation in the 4 subjects with baseline hypertriglyceridemia (greater than 2 mM) but were not significantly reduced overall. There was no significant change in fasting plasma total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In summary, dietary fish oil supplementation adversely affected glycemic control in NIDDM subjects without producing significant beneficial effects on plasma lipids. The effect of safflower oil supplementation was not significantly different from fish oil, suggesting that the negative effects on glucose metabolism may be related to the extra energy or fat intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Type Journal
ISBN 0012-1797 (Print)
Authors Borkman, M.;Chisholm, D. J.;Furler, S. M.;Storlien, L. H.;Kraegen, E. W.;Simons, L. A.;Chesterman, C. N. :
Garvan Authors Prof Ted Kraegen
Publisher Name DIABETES
Published Date 1989-01-01 00:00:00
Published Volume 38
Published Issue 10
Published Pages 1314-9
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=2676659
Status Published In-print