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Effects of Glutamine on Gastric Emptying of Low- and High-Nutrient Drinks in Healthy Young Subjects-Impact on Glycaemia

Abstract

Glutamine is a potent stimulus for the release of glucagon-like peptide-1, which increases postprandial insulin and slows gastric emptying (GE). We determined the effects of glutamine on GE of, and glycaemic responses to, low- and high-nutrient drinks in eight healthy males (mean age 21.6 +/- 0.7 years and BMI 22.9 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). Participants were studied on four occasions on which they consumed either a low-nutrient (beef soup; 18 kcal) or high-nutrient (75 g dextrose; 255 kcal) drink, each with or without 30 g of glutamine (120 kcal), in a randomised, crossover design. GE (2D ultrasound), blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured concurrently. Glutamine slowed GE (half emptying time (T50)) of both low- (45 +/- 3 min vs. 26 +/- 2 min, p < 0.001), and high-nutrient, (100 +/- 5 min vs. 77 +/- 5 min, p = 0.03) drinks, however, there was no effect on GE of the high nutrient drinks when expressed as kcal/min (3.39 +/- 0.21 kcal/min vs. 3.81 +/- 0.20 kcal/min, p = 0.25). There was no change in blood glucose after the low-nutrient drinks with or without glutamine, despite a slight increase in plasma insulin with glutamine (p = 0.007). The rise in blood glucose following the high-nutrient drink (p = 0.0001) was attenuated during the first 60 min by glutamine (p = 0.007). We conclude that in healthy subjects, glutamine slows GE of both low- and high-nutrient drinks comparably and attenuates the rise in blood glucose after the high-nutrient glucose drink.

Type Journal
ISBN 2072-6643 (Electronic) 2072-6643 (Linking)
Authors Du, Y. T.; Piscitelli, D.; Ahmad, S.; Trahair, L. G.; Greenfield, J. R.; Samocha-Bonet, D.; Rayner, C. K.; Horowitz, M.; Jones, K. L.
Responsible Garvan Author Prof Jerry Greenfield
Publisher Name Nutrients
Published Date 2018-06-07
Published Volume 10
Published Issue 6
Published Pages E739
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.3390/nu10060739
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29880750