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Memory B cells are reactivated in subcapsular proliferative foci of lymph nodes

Abstract

Vaccine-induced immunity depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBC). However, where and how MBCs are reactivated to make neutralising antibodies remain unknown. Here we show that MBCs are prepositioned in a subcapsular niche in lymph nodes where, upon reactivation by antigen, they rapidly proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells in the subcapsular proliferative foci (SPF). This novel structure is enriched for signals provided by T follicular helper cells and antigen-presenting subcapsular sinus macrophages. Compared with contemporaneous secondary germinal centres, SPF have distinct single-cell molecular signature, cell migration pattern and plasma cell output. Moreover, SPF are found both in human and mouse lymph nodes, suggesting that they are conserved throughout mammalian evolution. Our data thus reveal that SPF is a seat of immunological memory that may be exploited to rapidly mobilise secondary antibody responses and improve vaccine efficacy.

Type Journal
ISBN 2041-1723 (Electronic) 2041-1723 (Linking)
Authors Moran, I.; Nguyen, A.; Khoo, W. H.; Butt, D.; Bourne, K.; Young, C.; Hermes, J. R.; Biro, M.; Gracie, G.; Ma, C. S.; Munier, C. M. L.; Luciani, F.; Zaunders, J.; Parker, A.; Kelleher, A. D.; Tangye, S. G.; Croucher, P. I.; Brink, R.; Read, M. N.; Phan, T. G.
Responsible Garvan Author A/Prof Tri Phan
Publisher Name Nature Communications
Published Date 2018-08-22
Published Volume 9
Published Issue 1
Published Pages 3372
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-05772-7
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30135429