What can primary immunodeficiencies teach us about Th9 cell differentiation and function?
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) producing CD4(+) Th9 cells are a unique subset of effector cells involved in both health and disease. Th9 cells have been associated with protective immunity during parasitic infections with helminths, protozoans and extracellular pathogens, but implicated in disease states such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and autoimmune conditions including multiple sclerosis and ulcerative colitis. Here, we review the cytokine signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors required for IL-9 expression and how human primary immunodeficiencies caused by monogenic mutations can help elucidate the complex requirements for human Th9 cell differentiation. Primary immunodeficiencies are a platform for investigating IL-9 expression in primary human lymphocytes and by inference whether Th9 cells are implicated in the clinical phenotype characteristic of these patients.
|Authors||Worley, L; Ma, C; Tangye, SG|
|Responsible Garvan Author|
|Publisher Name||IMMUNOLOGY AND CELL BIOLOGY|
|URL link to publisher's version||https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30357921|