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PPARalpha-independent effects of nitrate supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in hypoxia

Abstract

Hypoxia is a feature of many disease states where convective oxygen delivery is impaired, and is known to suppress oxidative metabolism. Acclimation to hypoxia thus requires metabolic remodelling, however hypoxia tolerance may be aided by dietary nitrate supplementation. Nitrate improves tissue oxygenation and has been shown to modulate skeletal muscle tissue metabolism via transcriptional changes, including through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a master regulator of fat metabolism. Here we investigated whether nitrate supplementation protects skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in hypoxia and whether PPARalpha is required for this effect. Wild-type and PPARalpha knockout (PPARalpha(-/-)) mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate via the drinking water or sodium chloride as control, and exposed to environmental hypoxia (10% O2) or normoxia for 4weeks. Hypoxia suppressed mitochondrial respiratory function in mouse soleus, an effect partially alleviated through nitrate supplementation, but occurring independently of PPARalpha. Specifically, hypoxia resulted in 26% lower mass specific fatty acid-supported LEAK respiration and 23% lower pyruvate-supported oxidative phosphorylation capacity. Hypoxia also resulted in 24% lower citrate synthase activity in mouse soleus, possibly indicating a loss of mitochondrial content. These changes were not seen, however, in hypoxic mice when supplemented with dietary nitrate, indicating a nitrate dependent preservation of mitochondrial function. Moreover, this was observed in both wild-type and PPARalpha(-/-) mice. Our results support the notion that nitrate supplementation can aid hypoxia tolerance and indicate that nitrate can exert effects independently of PPARalpha.

Type Journal
ISBN 0925-4439 (Print) 0925-4439 (Linking)
Authors O'Brien, K. A.; Horscroft, J. A.; Devaux, J.; Lindsay, R. T.; Steel, A. S.; Clark, A. D.; Philp, A.; Harridge, S. D. R.; Murray, A. J.
Responsible Garvan Author Dr Andy Philp
Publisher Name BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE
Published Date 2018-07-27
Published Issue 18
Published Pages S0925-4439
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.07.027
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30055294