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Disruption of beta cell acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 in mice impairs insulin secretion and beta cell mass

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis, and beta cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Glucose triggers insulin secretion in beta cells via oxidative mitochondrial pathways. However, it also feeds mitochondrial anaplerotic pathways, driving citrate export and cytosolic malonyl-CoA production by the acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) enzyme. This pathway has been proposed as an alternative glucose-sensing mechanism, supported mainly by in vitro data. Here, we sought to address the role of the beta cell ACC1-coupled pathway in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. METHODS: Acaca, encoding ACC1 (the principal ACC isoform in islets), was deleted in beta cells of mice using the Cre/loxP system. Acaca floxed mice were crossed with Ins2cre mice (betaACC1KO; life-long beta cell gene deletion) or Pdx1creER mice (tmx-betaACC1KO; inducible gene deletion in adult beta cells). Beta cell function was assessed using in vivo metabolic physiology and ex vivo islet experiments. Beta cell mass was analysed using histological techniques. RESULTS: betaACC1KO and tmx-betaACC1KO mice were glucose intolerant and had defective insulin secretion in vivo. Isolated islet studies identified impaired insulin secretion from beta cells, independent of changes in the abundance of neutral lipids previously implicated as amplification signals. Pancreatic morphometry unexpectedly revealed reduced beta cell size in betaACC1KO mice but not in tmx-betaACC1KO mice, with decreased levels of proteins involved in the mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR)-dependent protein translation pathway underpinning this effect. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates that the beta cell ACC1-coupled pathway is critical for insulin secretion in vivo and ex vivo and that it is indispensable for glucose homeostasis. We further reveal a role for ACC1 in controlling beta cell growth prior to adulthood.

Type Journal
ISBN 1432-0428 (Electronic) 0012-186X (Linking)
Authors Cantley, J.; Davenport, A.; Vetterli, L.; Nemes, N. J.; Whitworth, P. T.; Boslem, E.; Thai, L. M.; Mellett, N.; Meikle, P. J.; Hoehn, K. L.; James, D. E.; Biden, T. J.
Responsible Garvan Author Prof Trevor Biden
Publisher Name DIABETOLOGIA
Published Date 2019-01-01
Published Volume 62
Published Issue 1
Published Pages 99-111
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1007/s00125-018-4743-7
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30334081