Mother-child transmission of epigenetic information by tunable polymorphic imprinting
Genomic imprinting mediated by DNA methylation restricts gene expression to a single allele determined by parental origin and is not generally considered to be under genetic or environmental influence. Here, we focused on a differentially methylated region (DMR) of approximately 1.9 kb that includes a 101-bp noncoding RNA gene (nc886/VTRNA2-1), which is maternally imprinted in approximately 75% of humans. This is unlike other imprinted genes, which demonstrate monoallelic methylation in 100% of individuals. The DMR includes a CTCF binding site on the centromeric side defining the DMR boundary and is flanked by a CTCF binding site on the telomeric side. The centromeric CTCF binding site contains an A/C polymorphism (rs2346018); the C allele is associated with less imprinting. The frequency of imprinting of the nc886 DMR in infants was linked to at least two nongenetic factors, maternal age at delivery and season of conception. In a separate cohort, nc886 imprinting was associated with lower body mass index in children at 5 y of age. Thus, we propose that the imprinting status of the nc886 DMR is "tunable" in that it is associated with maternal haplotype and prenatal environment. This provides a potential mechanism for transmitting information, with phenotypic consequences, from mother to child.
|ISBN||1091-6490 (Electronic) 0027-8424 (Linking)|
|Authors||Carpenter, B. L.; Zhou, W.; Madaj, Z.; DeWitt, A. K.; Ross, J. P.; Gronbaek, K.; Liang, G.; Clark, S. J.; Molloy, P. L.; Jones, P. A.|
|Responsible Garvan Author|
|Publisher Name||PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30509985|
|OpenAccess link to author's accepted manuscript version||https://publications.gimr.garvan.org.au/open-access/14861|