Macrophage alterations in islets of obese mice linked to beta cell disruption in diabetes
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Mild islet inflammation has been suggested as a contributing factor to beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Macrophage levels are elevated in the islets of humans and mice with type 2 diabetes, but their effects on beta cells are not understood. Our goal was to examine the gene expression changes in islet-associated macrophages in obesity models with opposing disposition to diabetes development and to assess their potential contribution to beta cell (mal)adaptation. METHODS: Islets were isolated from lean control mice, obese diabetes-prone db/db mice and obese diabetes-resistant ob/ob mice. Macrophages were sorted using flow cytometry. Islets were treated ex vivo with clodronate-containing liposomes to deplete macrophages. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: Macrophage levels were increased in islets from db/db mice but not in islets from ob/ob mice compared with lean control mice. Macrophages from db/db and ob/ob islets displayed distinct changes in gene expression compared with control islet macrophages, suggesting differential shifts in functional state. Macrophages from db/db islets displayed increased expression of interferon regulatory factor 5 (Irf5), IL-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn) and mannose receptor C-type 1 (Mrc1), whereas macrophages from ob/ob islets showed elevated levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgfb1) and reduced IL-1beta (Il1b). Clodronate-liposome treatment of islets depleted macrophages, as evidenced by reduced mRNA expression of Cd11b (also known as Itgam) and F4/80 (also known as Adgre1) compared with PBS-liposome-treated islets. The depletion of macrophages in db/db islets increased the expression of genes related to beta cell identity. The mRNA levels of islet-associated transcription factors (Mafa and Pdx1), glucose transporter (Glut2 [also known as Slc2a2]), ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (Kcnj11), incretin receptor (Gipr) and adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) genes (Xbp1, Hspa5, Pdia4 and Fkbp11) were increased in db/db islets after macrophage depletion, whereas the mRNA levels of the deleterious UPR effector, Ddit3, were reduced. In contrast, depletion of macrophages in islets of ob/ob mice did not affect beta cell identity gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The findings of this study suggest that distinct alterations in islet macrophages of obese mice are critically important for the disruption of beta cell gene expression in diabetes.
|ISBN||1432-0428 (Electronic) 0012-186X (Linking)|
|Authors||Chan, J. Y.; Lee, K.; Maxwell, E. L.; Liang, C.; Laybutt, D. R.|
|Responsible Garvan Author|
|URL link to publisher's version||https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30830262|