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Longitudinal Changes in Insulin Resistance in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Individuals

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Large cohort longitudinal studies have almost unanimously concluded that metabolic health in obesity is a transient phenomenon, diminishing in older age. We aimed to assess the fate of insulin sensitivity per se over time in overweight and obese individuals. METHODS: Individuals studied using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research from 2008 to 2010 (n = 99) were retrospectively grouped into Lean (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2)) or overweight/obese (BMI >/= 25 kg/m(2)), with the latter further divided into insulin-sensitive (ObSen) or insulin-resistant (ObRes), based on median clamp M-value (M/I, separate cut-offs for men and women). Fifty-seven individuals participated in a follow-up study after 5.4 +/- 0.1 years. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and circulating cardiovascular markers were measured again at follow-up, using the same protocols used at baseline. Liver fat was measured using computed tomography at baseline and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at follow-up with established cut-offs applied for defining fatty liver. RESULTS: In the whole cohort, M/I did not change over time (p = 0.40); it remained significantly higher at follow-up in ObSen compared with ObRes (p = 0.02), and was not different between ObSen and Lean (p = 0.41). While BMI did not change over time (p = 0.24), android and visceral fat increased significantly in this cohort (ptime </= 0.0013), driven by ObRes (p = 0.0087 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Similarly, systolic blood pressure increased significantly over time (ptime = 0.0003) driven by ObRes (p = 0.0039). The best correlate of follow-up M/I was baseline M/I (Spearman's r = 0.76, p = 1.1 x 10(-7)). CONCLUSIONS: The similarity in insulin sensitivity between the ObSen and the Lean groups at baseline persisted over time. Insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals predisposed to further metabolic deterioration over time.

Type Journal
ISBN 2077-0383 (Print) 2077-0383 (Linking)
Authors Tang, A.; Coster, A. C. F.; Tonks, K. T.; Heilbronn, L. K.; Pocock, N.; Purtell, L.; Govendir, M.; Blythe, J.; Zhang, J.; Xu, A.; Chisholm, D. J.; Johnson, N. A.; Greenfield, J. R.; Samocha-Bonet, D.
Responsible Garvan Author Dr Dorit Samocha-Bonet
Publisher Name Journal of Clinical Medicine
Published Date 2019-05-08
Published Volume 8
Published Issue 5
Published Pages pii: E623
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.3390/jcm8050623
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31071971