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Phlda3 regulates beta cell survival during stress

Abstract

The loss of functional beta cell mass characterises all forms of diabetes. Beta cells are highly susceptible to stress, including cytokine, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress. This study examined the role of pleckstrin homology-like, domain family A, member 3 (Phlda3) in beta cell survival under stress conditions and the regulatory basis. We found that the mRNA levels of Phlda3 were markedly upregulated in vivo in the islets of diabetic humans and mice. In vitro, exposure of MIN6 cells or islets to cytokines, palmitate, thapsigargin or ribose upregulated Phlda3 mRNA and protein levels, concurrent with the induction of ER stress (Ddit3 and Trb3) and antioxidant (Hmox1) genes. Furthermore, H2O2 treatment markedly increased PHLDA3 immunostaining in human islets. Phlda3 expression was differentially regulated by adaptive (Xbp1) and apoptotic (Ddit3) unfolded protein response (UPR) mediators. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Xbp1 inhibited the induction of Phlda3 by cytokines and palmitate, whereas knockdown of Ddit3 upregulated Phlda3. Moreover, knockdown of Phlda3 potentiated cytokine-induced apoptosis in association with upregulation of inflammatory genes (iNos, IL1beta and IkappaBalpha) and NFkappaB phosphorylation and downregulation of antioxidant (Gpx1 and Srxn1) and adaptive UPR (Xbp1, Hspa5 and Fkbp11) genes. Knockdown of Phlda3 also potentiated apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions induced by ribose treatment. These findings suggest that Phlda3 is crucial for beta cell survival under stress conditions. Phlda3 regulates the cytokine, oxidative and ER stress responses in beta cells via the repression of inflammatory gene expression and the maintenance of antioxidant and adaptive UPR gene expression. Phlda3 may promote beta cell survival in diabetes.

Type Journal
ISBN 2045-2322 (Electronic) 2045-2322 (Linking)
Authors Bensellam, M.; Chan, J. Y.; Lee, K.; Joglekar, M. V.; Hardikar, A. A.; Loudovaris, T.; Thomas, H. E.; Jonas, J. C.; Laybutt, D. R.
Responsible Garvan Author A/Prof Ross Laybutt
Publisher Name Scientific Reports
Published Date 2019-09-06
Published Volume 9
Published Issue 1
Published Pages 12827
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1038/s41598-019-49289-5
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31492921