Serum free methylated Glutathione S-transferase 1 DNA levels, survival, and response to docetaxel in metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer: Post hoc analyses of data from a phase 3 trial
BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) expression is inactivated in >90% of all prostate cancers in association with aberrant DNA methylation. Detection of serum free methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) DNA is associated with overall survival (OS) and response to docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in test and internal validation cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between serum free mGSTP1 and treatment outcomes in SYNERGY, a phase 3 multicentre randomised trial testing the addition of custirsen to first-line chemotherapy with docetaxel in mCRPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Serum free mGSTP1 DNA was measured by a sensitive methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay in paired samples (baseline and after two cycles of docetaxel) from 600 patients. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Associations between serum free mGSTP1 at baseline, change in mGSTP1 after docetaxel, OS, and time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier methods. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Serum free mGSTP1 was detectable at baseline in 458 (81%) patients. Of those with detectable mGSTP1 at baseline, mGSTP1 became undetectable after two cycles in 243 (53%). Undetectable mGSTP1 at baseline was associated with longer OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.55; p<0.00001). The event of mGSTP1 becoming undetectable after two cycles of chemotherapy was associated with longer OS (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.29-0.46; p<0.00001) and longer time to PSA progression (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.35-0.56; p<0.00001). Associations between mGSTP1 and clinical outcomes were independent of other established prognostic variables. Analysis was limited by the lack of radiographic progression-free survival data. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to externally validate the prognostic role of a circulating epigenetic biomarker in mCRPC. Further studies are needed to validate serum free mGSTP1 as a surrogate endpoint for clinical trials and as a potential clinical decision tool. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we confirmed that a blood marker predicted outcomes after chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer. This marker may accelerate future clinical trials of new therapies and be useful in the clinic to guide treatment decisions.
|Authors||Mahon, K. L.; Qu, W.; Lin, H. M.; Spielman, C.; Cain, D.; Jacobs, C.; Stockler, M. R.; Higano, C. S.; de Bono, J. S.; Chi, K. N.; Clark, S. J.; Horvath, L. G.|
|Responsible Garvan Author||A/Prof Lisa Horvath|
|Publisher Name||EUROPEAN UROLOGY|