Lipid Uptake Is an Androgen-Enhanced Lipid Supply Pathway Associated with Prostate Cancer Disease Progression and Bone Metastasis
De novo lipogenesis is a well-described androgen receptor (AR)-regulated metabolic pathway that supports prostate cancer tumor growth by providing fuel, membrane material, and steroid hormone precursor. In contrast, our current understanding of lipid supply from uptake of exogenous lipids and its regulation by AR is limited, and exogenous lipids mayplay a much more significant role in prostate cancer and disease progression than previously thought. By applying advanced automated quantitative fluorescence microscopy, we provide the most comprehensive functional analysis of lipid uptake in cancer cells to date and demonstrate that treatment of AR-positive prostate cancer cell lines with androgens results in significantly increased cellular uptake of fatty acids, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein particles. Consistent with a direct, regulatory role of AR in this process, androgen-enhanced lipid uptake can be blocked by the AR-antagonist enzalutamide, but is independent of proliferation and cell-cycle progression. This work for the first time comprehensively delineates the lipid transporter landscape in prostate cancer cell lines and patient samples by analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics data, including the plasma membrane proteome. We show that androgen exposure or deprivation regulates the expression of multiple lipid transporters in prostate cancer cell lines and tumor xenografts and that mRNA and protein expression of lipid transporters is enhanced in bone metastatic disease when compared with primary, localized prostate cancer. Our findings provide a strong rationale to investigate lipid uptake as a therapeutic cotarget in the fight against advanced prostate cancer in combination with inhibitors of lipogenesis to delay disease progression and metastasis.
|Authors||Tousignant, K. D.; Rockstroh, A.; Fard, A. T.; Lehman, M. L.; Wang, C. W.; McPherson, S. J.; Philp, L. K.; Bartonicek, N.; Dinger, M. E.; Nelson, C. C.; Sadowski, M. C.|
|Publisher Name||MOLECULAR CANCER RESEARCH|
|URL link to publisher's version||https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30808729|