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Clinical applications of polygenic breast cancer risk: a critical review and perspectives of an emerging field

Abstract

Polygenic factors are estimated to account for an additional 18% of the familial relative risk of breast cancer, with those at the highest level of polygenic risk distribution having a least a twofold increased risk of the disease. Polygenic testing promises to revolutionize health services by providing personalized risk assessments to women at high-risk of breast cancer and within population breast screening programs. However, implementation of polygenic testing needs to be considered in light of its current limitations, such as limited risk prediction for women of non-European ancestry. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the evidence for polygenic breast cancer risk, including the discovery of variants associated with breast cancer at the genome-wide level of significance and the use of polygenic risk scores to estimate breast cancer risk. We also review the different applications of this technology including testing of women from high-risk breast cancer families with uninformative genetic testing results, as a moderator of monogenic risk, and for population screening programs. Finally, a potential framework for introducing testing for polygenic risk in familial cancer clinics and the potential challenges with implementing this technology in clinical practice are discussed.

Type Journal
Authors Tatiane Yanes, Mary-Anne Young, Bettina Meiser & Paul A. James
Responsible Garvan Author Mary-Anne Young
Publisher Name BREAST CANCER RESEARCH
Published Date 2020-02-17
Published Volume 22
Published Issue 1
Published Pages 21
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1186/s13058-020-01260-3
URL link to publisher's version https://doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-01260-3