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The DNA methylation landscape in cancer

Abstract

As one of the most abundant and well-studied epigenetic modifications, DNA methylation plays an essential role in normal development and cellular biology. Global alterations to the DNA methylation landscape contribute to alterations in the transcriptome and deregulation of cellular pathways. Indeed, improved methods to study DNA methylation patterning and dynamics at base pair resolution and across individual DNA molecules on a genome-wide scale has highlighted the scope of change to the DNA methylation landscape in disease states, particularly during tumorigenesis. More recently has been the development of DNA hydroxymethylation profiling techniques, which allows differentiation between 5mC and 5hmC profiles and provides further insights into DNA methylation dynamics and remodeling in tumorigenesis. In this review, we describe the distribution of DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation in different genomic contexts, first in normal cells, and how this is altered in cancer. Finally, we discuss DNA methylation profiling technologies and the most recent advances in single-cell methods, bisulfite-free approaches and ultra-long read sequencing techniques.

Type Journal
ISBN 1744-1358 (Electronic) 0071-1365 (Linking)
Authors Skvortsova, K.; Stirzaker, C.; Taberlay, P.
Responsible Garvan Author Dr Ksenia Skvortsova
Publisher Name Essays in Biochemistry
Published Date 2019-12-17
Published Volume 63
Published Issue 6
Published Pages 797-811
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1042/EBC20190037
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31845735