Lipid Metabolism Links Nutrient-Exercise Timing to Insulin Sensitivity in Men Classified as Overweight or Obese
CONTEXT: Pre-exercise nutrient availability alters acute metabolic responses to exercise, which could modulate training responsiveness. OBJECTIVE: To assess acute and chronic effects of exercise performed before versus after nutrient ingestion on whole-body and intramuscular lipid utilization and postprandial glucose metabolism. DESIGN: (1) Acute, randomized, crossover design (Acute Study); (2) 6-week, randomized, controlled design (Training Study). SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Men with overweight/obesity (mean +/- standard deviation, body mass index: 30.2 +/- 3.5 kgm-2 for Acute Study, 30.9 +/- 4.5 kgm-2 for Training Study). INTERVENTIONS: Moderate-intensity cycling performed before versus after mixed-macronutrient breakfast (Acute Study) or carbohydrate (Training Study) ingestion. RESULTS: Acute Study-exercise before versus after breakfast consumption increased net intramuscular lipid utilization in type I (net change: -3.44 +/- 2.63% versus 1.44 +/- 4.18% area lipid staining, P < 0.01) and type II fibers (-1.89 +/- 2.48% versus 1.83 +/- 1.92% area lipid staining, P < 0.05). Training Study-postprandial glycemia was not differentially affected by 6 weeks of exercise training performed before versus after carbohydrate intake (P > 0.05). However, postprandial insulinemia was reduced with exercise training performed before but not after carbohydrate ingestion (P = 0.03). This resulted in increased oral glucose insulin sensitivity (25 +/- 38 vs -21 +/- 32 mLmin-1m-2; P = 0.01), associated with increased lipid utilization during exercise (r = 0.50, P = 0.02). Regular exercise before nutrient provision also augmented remodeling of skeletal muscle phospholipids and protein content of the glucose transport protein GLUT4 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Experiments investigating exercise training and metabolic health should consider nutrient-exercise timing, and exercise performed before versus after nutrient intake (ie, in the fasted state) may exert beneficial effects on lipid utilization and reduce postprandial insulinemia.
|ISBN||1945-7197 (Electronic) 0021-972X (Linking)|
|Authors||Edinburgh, R. M.; Bradley, H. E.; Abdullah, N. F.; Robinson, S. L.; Chrzanowski-Smith, O. J.; Walhin, J. P.; Joanisse, S.; Manolopoulos, K. N.; Philp, A.; Hengist, A.; Chabowski, A.; Brodsky, F. M.; Koumanov, F.; Betts, J. A.; Thompson, D.; Wallis, G. A.; Gonzalez, J. T.|
|Responsible Garvan Author|
|Publisher Name||JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM|
|URL link to publisher's version||https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31628477|