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Autoantibody-Negative Type 1 Diabetes: A Neglected Subtype

Abstract

Up to 15% of individuals with a clinical phenotype of type 1 diabetes (T1D) do not have evidence of seropositivity for pancreatic islet autoantibodies. On this basis, they are classified as nonimmune or idiopathic, and remain an understudied population, as they are excluded from T1D immunomodulatory trials. Our limited understanding of the disease aetiopathogenesis in autoantibody-negative T1D hinders our ability to improve diagnostic pathways and discover novel therapeutic agents; particularly as we progress towards an era of precision medicine. This review summarises the current understanding and challenges in studying autoantibody-negative T1D. We review the literature regarding T1D classification, and the role of autoimmunity and defects in the immunogenic pathway that may distinguish autoantibody-positive and -negative T1D.

Type Journal
ISBN 1879-3061 (Electronic) 1043-2760 (Linking)
Authors Patel, S. K.; Ma, C. S.; Fourlanos, S.; Greenfield, J. R.
Responsible Garvan Author Prof Jerry Greenfield
Publisher Name TRENDS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
Published Date 2021-03-09
Status Always Electronic
DOI 10.1016/j.tem.2021.02.001
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33712367