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Evaluation of Diffuse Type 2 Dominant or Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Corticosteroid Irrigation After Surgical Neosinus Cavity Formation


Importance: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (eCRS), contemporarily classified as diffuse type 2 dominant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), is characterized by eosinophil-dominant mucosal inflammation. Contemporary management of eCRS as an inflammatory airway condition is multimodal with corticosteroid irrigations after the surgical creation of a neosinus cavity. Objectives: To assess long-term treatment outcomes in patients with primary diffuse type 2 CRS or eCRS receiving multimodal treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of patients seen in a tertiary rhinology practice recruited from May 2010 to November 2018 was conducted. Follow-up duration was 12 months or more following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with a neosinus cavity formed. Data analysis was performed from August to November 2020. Consecutive adult (>/=18 years) patients diagnosed with primary diffuse type 2 dominant CRS or eCRS based on the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2020 criteria were included. Type 2 inflammation was defined as more than 10 eosinophils per high-power field obtained from sinus mucosal biopsy and managed with neosinus cavity ESS and ongoing corticosteroid irrigations. Exclusion criteria were less than 12 months of follow-up and secondary CRS. Interventions: Endoscopic sinus surgery with complete removal of intersinus bony partitions to create a neosinus cavity. Nasal irrigation (240 mL) with betamethasone, 1 mg, or budesonide, 1 mg, daily for 3 to 6 months after ESS and tapered to an as-needed basis (minimum, 2-3 per week). Main Outcomes and Measures: Poor control was defined as polyp recurrence (polyp growth in >1 sinus area on a single side), use of long-term systemic therapy (biologic therapy or >/=3 consecutive months of oral corticosteroids), and revision surgery involving polypectomy. The disease in patients with no poor control criteria was defined as well controlled, and the disease in those with 1 or more criteria was considered poorly controlled. Maintenance medical therapy use and patient-reported outcomes based on the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test for preoperative and last follow-up were collected. Results: Of the 222 participants recruited with primary diffuse type 2 dominant CRS or eCRS and minimum of year of follow-up, 126 were men (56.8%). Mean (SD) age was 54.8 (13.6) years, and median (SD) follow-up was 2.2 (2.2) years. Of the 222 patients, 195 (87.8%) had well-controlled disease, 16 (7.2%) had polyp recurrence, 7 (3.2%) continued to receive long-term oral corticosteroid therapy, 5 (2.3%) received biologic therapy, and 8 (3.6%) underwent a revision polypectomy. Clinically meaningful change on the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test and the nasal subdomain score was maintained at the last follow-up in 134 patients (67.0%). Poor disease control was not associated with poor adherence to irrigation use. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that long-term disease control and reduction in symptom burden in patients with primary diffuse type 2 CRS or eCRS might be achieved when managed as an inflammatory disorder. Maintenance corticosteroid irrigations in the population examined appeared to be successfully self-tapered to disease activity.

Type Journal
Authors Li, W. Ho, J. Grayson, J. W. Alvarado, R. Rimmer, J. Sewell, W. A. Campbell, R. Kalish, L. Sacks, R. Harvey, R. J.
Responsible Garvan Author Prof Bill Sewell
Publisher Name JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
Published Date 2021-04-01
Published Volume 147
Published Issue 4
Published Pages 360-367
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2020.5286