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The Use of Imaging Techniques in Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorders (CKD-MBD)-A Systematic Review

Abstract

Although frequently silent, mineral and bone disease (MBD) is one of the most precocious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is omnipresent in patients with CKD stage 5. Its pathophysiology is complex, but basically, disturbances in vitamin D, phosphate, and calcium metabolism lead to a diverse range of clinical manifestations with secondary hyperparathyroidism usually being the most frequent. With the decline in renal function, CKD-MBD may induce microstructural changes in bone, vascular system and soft tissues, which results in macrostructural lesions, such as low bone mineral density (BMD) resulting in skeletal fractures, vascular and soft tissue calcifications. Moreover, low BMD, fractures, and vascular calcifications are linked with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Therefore, a better characterization of CKD-MBD patterns, beyond biochemical markers, is helpful to adapt therapies and monitor strategies as used in the general population. An in-depth characterization of bone health is required, which includes an evaluation of cortical and trabecular bone structure and density and the degree of bone remodeling through bone biomarkers. Standard radiological imaging is generally used for the diagnosis of fracture or pseudo-fractures, vascular calcifications and other features of CKD-MBD. However, bone fractures can also be diagnosed using computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). Fracture risk can be predicted by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QTC) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQTC), quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and most recently magnetic resonance micro-imaging. Quantitative methods to assess bone consistency and strength complete the study and adjust the clinical management when integrated with clinical factors. The aim of this review is to provide a brief and comprehensive update of imaging techniques available for the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and monitoring of CKD-MBD.

Type Journal
ISBN 2075-4418 (Print) 2075-4418 (Linking)
Authors Pimentel, A.; Bover, J.; Elder, G.; Cohen-Solal, M.; Urena-Torres, P. A.
Responsible Garvan Author Prof Grahame Elder
Publisher Name Diagnostics
Published Date 2021-04-26
Published Volume 11
Published Issue 5
Published Pages 772
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.3390/diagnostics11050772
URL link to publisher's version https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33925796