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Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals


Calorie restriction (CR) delays the development of age-associated disease and increases lifespan in rodents, but the effects in humans remain uncertain. PURPOSE: Determine the effect of 6 months of CR with or without exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and estimated 10-year CVD risk in healthy non-obese men and women. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals were randomized to one of three groups for 6 months: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX, 12.5% CR+12.5% increase in energy expenditure via aerobic exercise. CVD risk factors were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: After 6 months, CR and CR+EX lost approximately 10% of body weight. CR significantly reduced triacylglycerol (-31+/-15mg/dL) and factor VIIc (-10.7+/-2.3%). Similarly CR+EX reduced triacylglycerol (-22+/-8mg/dL) and additionally reduced LDL-C (-16.0+/-5.1mg/dL) and DBP (-4.0+/-2.1mmHg). In contrast, both triacylglycerol (24+/-14mg/dL) and factor VIIc (7.9+/-2.3%) were increased in the Control group. HDL-cholesterol was increased in all groups while hsCRP was lower in the Controls versus CR+EX. Estimated 10-year CVD risk significantly declined from baseline by 29% in CR (P<0.001) and 38% in the CR+EX (P<0.001) while remaining unchanged in the Control group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on combined favorable changes in lipid and blood pressure, caloric restriction with or without exercise that induces weight loss favorably reduces risk for CVD even in already healthy non-obese individuals.

Type Journal
ISBN 1879-1484 (Electronic)
Authors Lefevre, M.; Redman, L. M.; Heilbronn, L. K.; Smith, J. V.; Martin, C. K.; Rood, J. C.; Greenway, F. L.; Williamson, D. A.; Smith, S. R.; Ravussin, E.
Publisher Name Atherosclerosis
Published Date 2009-03-01
Published Volume 203
Published Issue 1
Published Pages 206-13
Status Published in-print
DOI S0021-9150(08)00378-X [pii] 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.05.036
URL link to publisher's version
OpenAccess link to author's accepted manuscript version