Differential effects of retinoids and antiestrogens on cell cycle progression and cell cycle regulatory genes in human breast cancer cells
Retinoids have antiproliferative effects in human breast cancer cells and share some characteristics with antiestrogens, although the molecular targets involved have yet to be identified in either case. Using T-47D human breast cancer cells, we compared the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and the antiestrogen ICI 164384 on cell cycle phase distribution and the expression of genes with known functions in cell cycle control. Both RA and ICI 164384 inhibited cell cycle progression in G1 phase, but the RA effect was delayed by 16 h. This delay in action was also seen with 9-cis RA and other retinoids. Administration of 17 beta-estradiol abolished the effects of ICI 164384 but was without effect in RA-treated cells. Antiestrogen treatment caused a rapid inhibition of c-myc and cyclin D1 gene expression and reduced Cdk2 activity by more than 50% at 24 h. RA, however, did not affect c-myc or cyclin D1 gene expression, nor did it significantly change the mRNA or protein levels of cyclins D3 or E or cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) Cdk2 or Cdk4. RA-induced reduction in Cdk2 activity was modest and occurred after %S phase declined, while Cdk4 activity was reduced, coincident with cell cycle changes. However, following either RA or ICI 164384, there was a reduction in the amount of hyperphosphorylated pRB, first apparent well before cell cycle changes were seen. These data demonstrate that: (a) the mechanisms of action of antiestrogens and retinoids are different but converge at pRB; and (b) RA can affect CDK activity without reducing cyclin or CDK levels.
|Authors||Wilcken, N. R.;Sarcevic, B.;Musgrove, E. A.;Sutherland, R. L. :|
|Responsible Garvan Author|
|Publisher Name||Cell Growth Differ|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8788034|