Cloning, pharmacological characterization and distribution of a novel galanin receptor
The neuropeptide galanin mediates a diverse spectrum of biological activities by interacting with specific G-protein-coupled receptors. Through expression cloning, human and rat GALR1 receptor cDNA clones have previously been isolated and characterized. In this study, we have used homology screening to isolate a rat brain cDNA clone encoding a second galanin receptor subtype, the GALR2 receptor. The isolated cDNA encodes a 372-amino-acid G-protein-coupled receptor that shares 38% overall amino-acid identity with the rat GALR1 receptor. The pharmacological profile of the rat GALR2 receptor is similar to that of the rat GALR1 receptor. The rat GALR2 receptor binds galanin, N-terminal galanin fragments, and the putative galanin receptor antagonists galantide, C7, M35 and M40 with high affinity but it does not bind C-terminal galanin fragments. Galanin increases intracellular inositol phosphate levels in HEK 293 cells expressing the rat GALR2 receptor via a pertussis toxin-insensitive G-protein. The rat GALR2 receptor mRNA is highly expressed in several brain regions, including hypothalamus and hippocampus as well as the anterior pituitary, with lower levels of expression detected in amygdala, and regions of cortex. It is also highly expressed in the GH3 pituitary cell line and in gut tissues, and to a lower extent in spleen, lung, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney, liver and testis. These results suggest that GALR2 receptor mediates galanin's regulation of pituitary hormone secretion and possibly food intake.
|Authors||Fathi, Z.;Cunningham, A. M.;Iben, L. G.;Battaglino, P. B.;Ward, S. A.;Nichol, K. A.;Pine, K. A.;Wang, J.;Goldstein, M. E.;Iismaa, T. P.;Zimanyi, I. A. :|
|Publisher Name||Brain Res Mol Brain Res|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=9427506|