Differential regulation of adaptive and apoptotic unfolded protein response signalling by cytokine-induced nitric oxide production in mouse pancreatic beta cells
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha may contribute to pancreatic beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. A mechanism requiring nitric oxide, which is generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in cytokine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis has been proposed. Here, we tested the role of nitric oxide in cytokine-induced ER stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) in beta cells. METHODS: Isolated islets from wild-type and iNos (also known as Nos2) knockout (iNos ( -/- )) mice, and MIN6 beta cells were incubated with IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha for 24-48 h. N (G)-methyl-L: -arginine was used to inhibit nitric oxide production in MIN6 cells. Protein levels and gene expression were assessed by western blot and real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: In islets and MIN6 cells, inhibition of nitric oxide production had no effect on the generation of ER stress by cytokines, as evidenced by downregulation of Serca2b (also known as Atp2a2) mRNA and increased phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha subunit. However, nitric oxide regulated the pattern of UPR signalling, which delineates the cellular decision to adapt to ER stress or to undergo apoptosis. Inhibition of nitric oxide production led to reduced expression of pro-apoptotic UPR markers, Chop (also known as Ddit3), Atf3 and Trib3. In contrast, adaptive UPR markers (chaperones, foldases and degradation enhancers) were increased. Further analysis of mouse islets showed that cytokine-induced Chop and Atf3 expression was also dependent on JNK activity. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The mechanism by which cytokines induce ER stress in mouse beta cells is independent of nitric oxide production. However, nitric oxide may regulate the switch between adaptive and apoptotic UPR signalling.
|ISBN||1432-0428 (Electronic) 0012-186X (Linking)|
|Authors||Chan, J. Y.; Cooney, G. J.; Biden, T. J.; Laybutt, D. R.;|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21472432|
|OpenAccess link to author's accepted manuscript version||https://publications.gimr.garvan.org.au/open-access/11056|