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Amplification and demultiplexing in insulin-regulated Akt protein kinase pathway in adipocytes

Abstract

Akt plays a major role in insulin regulation of metabolism in muscle, fat, and liver. Here, we show that in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Akt operates optimally over a limited dynamic range. This indicates that Akt is a highly sensitive amplification step in the pathway. With robust insulin stimulation, substantial changes in Akt phosphorylation using either pharmacologic or genetic manipulations had relatively little effect on Akt activity. By integrating these data we observed that half-maximal Akt activity was achieved at a threshold level of Akt phosphorylation corresponding to 5-22% of its full dynamic range. This behavior was also associated with lack of concordance or demultiplexing in the behavior of downstream components. Most notably, FoxO1 phosphorylation was more sensitive to insulin and did not exhibit a change in its rate of phosphorylation between 1 and 100 nm insulin compared with other substrates (AS160, TSC2, GSK3). Similar differences were observed between various insulin-regulated pathways such as GLUT4 translocation and protein synthesis. These data indicate that Akt itself is a major amplification switch in the insulin signaling pathway and that features of the pathway enable the insulin signal to be split or demultiplexed into discrete outputs. This has important implications for the role of this pathway in disease. J Biol Chem. 2012 Feb 24;287(9):6128-38. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Type Journal
ISBN 1083-351X (Electronic) 0021-9258 (Linking)
Authors Tan, S. X.; Ng, Y.; Meoli, C. C.; Kumar, A.; Khoo, P. S.; Fazakerley, D. J.; Junutula, J. R.; Vali, S.; James, D. E.; Stockli, J.;
Responsible Garvan Author
Publisher Name JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
Published Date 2012-01-01
Published Volume 287
Published Issue 9
Published Pages 6128-38
Status Published in-print
URL link to publisher's version http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22207758
OpenAccess link to author's accepted manuscript version https://publications.gimr.garvan.org.au/open-access/11660