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Vitamin D: direct effects of vitamin D metabolites on bone: lessons from genetically modified mice.

Abstract

The vitamin D endocrine system has clear beneficial effects on bone as demonstrated by prevention of rickets in children and by reducing the risk of osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults or elderly subjects. Depending on the design of the study of genetically modified animals, however, 1,25(OH)2D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) may have no effect, beneficial or even deleterious direct effects on bone. We present here a comprehensive model of the direct effects of vitamin D on bone. In case of sufficient calcium supply, vitamin D and its metabolites can improve the calcium balance and facilitate mineral deposition in bone matrix largely without direct effects on bone cells, although some beneficial effects may occur via mature osteoblasts, as demonstrated in mice with osteoblast-specific overexpression of VDR or 1?-hydroxylase. In case of calcium deficiency, however, 1,25(OH)2D enhances bone resorption, whereas simultaneously inhibiting bone mineralization, so as to defend serum calcium homeostasis at the expense of bone mass. This dual role probably provides a survival benefit for land vertebrates living in a calcium-poor environment.

Type Journal
Authors Eisman, J.A.; Bouillon, R.
Garvan Authors Prof John Eisman
Publisher Name IBMS BoneKEy
Published Date 2014-03-01 00:00:00
Published Volume 3
Published Pages 499
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605216
Status Published in-print