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Metabolically protective cytokines adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor-21 are increased by acute overfeeding in healthy humans


CONTEXT: Circulating levels of metabolically protective and adverse cytokines are altered in obese humans and rodent models. However, it is not clear whether these cytokines are altered rapidly in response to over-nutrition, or as a later consequence of the obese state. METHODS: Forty sedentary healthy individuals were examined prior to and at 3 and 28 days of high fat overfeeding (+1250 kCal/day, 45% fat). Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp), adiposity, serum levels of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), lipocalin-2 and plasminogen activator factor-1 (PAI1) were assessed. Statistics were performed by repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Overfeeding increased weight, body fat and liver fat, fasting glucose, insulin and reduced insulin sensitivity by clamp (all P <0.05). Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF21 were increased at day 3 of overfeeding (P </=0.001) and adiponectin was also elevated at day 28 (P=0.001). FABP4, lipocalin-2 and PAI-1 were not changed by overfeeding at either time point. CONCLUSION: Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF-21, were increased by over nutrition and weight gain in healthy humans, despite increases in insulin resistance. We speculate that this was in attempt to maintain glucose homeostasis in a state of nutritional excess. PAI-I, FABP4 and lipocalin 2 were not altered by overfeeding suggesting that changes in these cytokines may be a later consequence of the obese state. Clinical trial (NCT00562393).

Type Journal
Authors Heilbronn, L. K.; Campbell, L. V.; Xu, A.; Samocha-Bonet, D.
Responsible Garvan Author A/Prof Dorit Samocha-Bonet
Publisher Name PLoS One
Published Date 2013-11-10
Published Volume 8
Published Issue 10
Published Pages e78864
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0078864
URL link to publisher's version
OpenAccess link to author's accepted manuscript version