Estrogen and progestin regulation of cell cycle progression
Estrogens and progesterone, acting via their specific nuclear receptors, are essential for normal mammary gland development and differentiated function. The molecular mechanisms through which these effects are mediated are not well defined, although significant recent progress has been made in linking steroid hormone action to cell cycle progression. This review summarizes data identifying c-myc and cyclin D1 as major downstream targets of both estrogen- and progestin-stimulated cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells. Additionally, estrogen induces the formation of high specific activity forms of the cyclin E-Cdk2 enzyme complex lacking the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)3 inhibitor, p21. The delayed growth inhibitory effects of progestins, which are likely to be prerequisites for manifestation of their function in differentiation, also involve decreases in cyclin D1 and E gene expression and recruitment of CDK inhibitors into cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes. Thus estrogens and progestins affect CDK function not only by effects on cyclin abundance but also by regulating the recruitment of CDK inhibitors and, as yet undefined, additional components which determine the activity of the CDK complexes. These effects of estrogens and progestins are likely to be major contributors to their regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.
|Authors||Sutherland, R. L.;Prall, O. W.;Watts, C. K.;Musgrove, E. A. :|
|Publisher Name||J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia|
|Published Date||1998-01-01 00:00:00|