Proteomics for breast cancer urine biomarkers
Although the survival of breast cancer (BC) patients has increased over the last two decades due to improved screening programs and postoperative adjuvant systemic therapies, many patients die from metastatic relapse. Current biomarkers used in the clinic are not useful for the early detection of BC, or monitoring its progression, and have limited value in predicting response to treatment. The development of proteomic techniques has sparked new searches for novel protein markers for many diseases including BC. Proteomic techniques allow for a high-throughput analysis of samples with the visualization and quantification of thousands of potential protein and peptide markers. Human urine is one of the most interesting and useful biofluids for routine testing and provides an excellent resource for the discovery of novel biomarkers, with the advantage over tissue biopsy samples due to the ease and less invasive nature of collection. In this review, we summarize the results from studies where urine was used as a source for BC biomarker research and discuss urine sample preparation, its advantage, challenges, and limitation. We focus on the gel-based proteomic approaches as well as the recent development of quantitative techniques in BC urine biomarker detection. Finally, the future use of modern proteomic techniques in BC biomarker identification will be discussed.
|ISBN||0065-2423 (Print) 0065-2423 (Linking)|
|Authors||Beretov, J.; Wasinger, V. C.; Graham, P. H.; Millar, E. K.; Kearsley, J. H.; Li, Y.;|
|Publisher Name||Advances in Clinical Chemistry|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24783353|