Vitamin D, muscle and bone: Itegrating effects in development, aging and injury.
Beyond the established effects of muscle loading on bone, a complex network of hormones and growth factors integrates these adjacent tissues. One such hormone, vitamin D, exerts broad-ranging effects in muscle and bone calcium handling, differentiation and development. Vitamin D also modulates muscle and bone-derived hormones, potentially facilitating cross-talk between these tissues. In the clinical setting, vitamin D deficiency or mutations of the vitamin D receptor result in generalized atrophy of muscle and bone, suggesting coordinated effects of vitamin D at these sites. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence that vitamin D exerts specific effects throughout the life of the musculoskeletal system ? in development, aging and injury. From this holistic viewpoint, we offer new insights into an old debate: whether vitamin D?s effects in the musculoskeletal system are direct via local VDR signals or indirect via its systemic effects in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
|Authors||Girgis, C.M.; Baldock, P.A.; Downes, M.|
|Publisher Name||MOL CELL ENDOCRINOL|
|Published Date||2015-08-01 00:00:00|