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L-glutamine and whole protein restore first-phase insulin response and increase glucagon-like Peptide-1 in type 2 diabetes patients


l-glutamine triggers glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release from L cells in vitro and when ingested pre-meal, decreases postprandial glycaemia and increases circulating insulin and GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of oral l-glutamine, compared with whole protein low in glutamine, on insulin response in well-controlled T2D patients. In a randomized study with a crossover design, T2D patients (n = 10, 6 men) aged 65.1 +/- 5.8, with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.6% +/- 0.7% (48 +/- 8 mmol/mol), received oral l-glutamine (25 g), protein (25 g) or water, followed by an intravenous glucose bolus (0.3 g/kg) and hyperglycemic glucose clamp for 2 h. Blood was frequently collected for analyses of glucose, serum insulin and plasma total and active GLP-1 and area under the curve of glucose, insulin, total and active GLP-1 excursions calculated. Treatments were tested 1-2 weeks apart. Both l-glutamine and protein increased first-phase insulin response (p </= 0.02). Protein (p = 0.05), but not l-glutamine (p = 0.2), increased second-phase insulin response. Total GLP-1 was increased by both l-glutamine and protein (p </= 0.02). We conclude that oral l-glutamine and whole protein are similarly effective in restoring first-phase insulin response in T2D patients. Larger studies are required to further investigate the utility of similar approaches in improving insulin response in diabetes.

Type Journal
ISBN 2072-6643 (Electronic) 2072-6643 (Linking)
Authors Samocha-Bonet, D.; Chisholm, D. J.; Holst, J. J.; Greenfield, J. R.;
Garvan Authors Prof Don Chisholm , Dr Dorit Samocha-Bonet , A/Prof Jerry Greenfield
Publisher Name Nutrients
Published Date 2015-01-01 00:00:00
Published Volume 7
Published Issue 4
Published Pages 2101-8
Status Published In-print