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A randomized study of a single dose of intramuscular cholecalciferol in critically ill adults.


OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of two doses of intramuscular cholecalciferol on serial serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D levels and on pharmacodynamics endpoints: calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and cathelicidin in critically ill adults. DESIGN: Prospective randomized interventional study. SETTING: Tertiary, academic adult ICU. PATIENTS: Fifty critically ill adults with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly allocated to receive a single intramuscular dose of either 150,000 IU (0.15 mU) or 300,000 IU (0.3 mU) cholecalciferol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic parameters, and outcome measures were collected over a 14-day period or until ICU discharge, whichever was earlier. Prior to randomization, 28 of 50 patients (56%) were classified as vitamin D deficient. By day 7 after randomization, 15 of 23 (65%) and 14 of 21 patients (67%) normalized vitamin D levels with 0.15 and 0.3 mU, respectively (p = 0.01) and by day 14, 8 of 10 (80%) and 10 of 12 patients (83%) (p = 0.004), respectively. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was manifested in 28% of patients at baseline. Parathyroid hormone levels decreased over the study period with patients achieving vitamin D sufficiency at day 7 having significantly lower parathyroid hormone levels (p < 0.01). Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) fell significantly over the study period. Greater increments in 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D were significantly associated with greater increments in cathelicidin at days 1 and 3 (p = 0.04 and 0.004, respectively). Although in-hospital mortality rate did not differ between the groups, patients who did not mount a parathyroid hormone response to vitamin D deficiency had a higher mortality (35% vs 12%; p = 0.05). No significant adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of either dose of intramuscular cholecalciferol corrected vitamin D deficiency in the majority of critically ill patients. Greater vitamin D increments were associated with early greater cathelicidin increases, suggesting a possible mechanism of vitamin D supplementation in inducing bactericidal pleiotropic effects.

Type Journal
Authors Nair, P.; Venkatesh, B.; Lee, P.; Kerr, S.; Hoechter, D.J.; Dimeski, G.; Grice, J.; Myburgh, J.; Center, J.R.
Published Date 2015-11-01
Published Volume 43
Published Issue 11
Published Pages 2313-20
Status Published in-print
URL link to publisher's version
OpenAccess link to author's accepted manuscript version