Peptide YY-2 (PYY2) and pancreatic polypeptide-2 (PPY2): species-specific evolution of novel members of the neuropeptide Y gene family
Several gene duplication events have led to the creation of at least five distinct members of the neuropeptide Y gene family. We now reveal that the most recent of these events, involving the PYY-PPY gene cluster on chromosome 17q21.1, has led to the creation of novel PYY- and PP-like genes on chromosome 17q11 in the human genome. Sequence analysis of the novel human PYY2 and PPY2 genes shows an extensive homology to the peptide YY-pancreatic polypeptide genes, at the level of gene structure, nucleotide sequence, and primary amino acid sequence. The extremely high degree of homology between the PYY-PPY and the PYY2-PPY2 gene clusters, in both coding regions and especially noncoding regions, suggests that the PYY2 and PPY2 genes have arisen by a very recent gene duplication. Similar gene duplication events of the PYY-PPY gene cluster have also occurred in other species, including cow and baboon, but have not been confirmed in the rat and mouse genomes. Interestingly, despite the greater than 92% nucleotide sequence identity between these new genes, a few specific mutations have resulted in significantly altered peptide sequences. These altered sequences are accompanied by acquisition of new functions apparently unrelated to the neurotransmitter/endocrine role of PYY and PPY, as demonstrated by the major involvement of bovine PYY2, also known as seminal plasmin, in the fertilization process.
|Authors||Couzens, M.;Liu, M.;Tuchler, C.;Kofler, B.;Nessler-Menardi, C.;Parker, R. M.;Klocker, H.;Herzog, H. :|
|Published Date||2000-01-01 00:00:00|