GTP binding and signaling by Gh/transglutaminase II involves distinct residues in a unique GTP-binding pocket
G(h) is a dual function protein. It has receptor signaling activity that requires GTP binding and Ca(2+)-activated transglutaminase (TGase) activity that is inhibited by GTP binding. G(h) shows no homology with other GTP-binding proteins, and its GTP-binding site has not been defined. Based on sequence analysis of [alpha-(32)P]GTP-photolabeled and proteolytically released internal peptide fragments, we report localization of GTP binding to a 15-residue segment ((159)YVLTQQGFIYQGSVK(173)) of the G(h) core domain. This was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis; a G(h)/fXIIIA chimera (in which residues 162-179 of G(h) were substituted with the equivalent but nonhomologous region of the non-GTP-binding TGase factor XIIIA) and a G(h) point mutant, S171E, retained TGase activity but failed to bind and hydrolyze GTP and did not support alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor signaling. Slight impairment of GTP binding (1.5-fold) and hydrolysis (10-fold) in the absence of altered TGase activity did not affect signaling by the mutant K173N. However, greater impairment of GTP binding (6-fold) and hydrolysis (50-fold) abolished signaling by the mutant K173L. Mutant S171C exhibited enhanced GTP binding and signaling. Thus, residues Ser(171) and Lys(173) are critical for both GTP binding and signaling but not TGase activity. Mutagenesis of residues N-terminal to Gly(170) impaired both GTP binding and TGase activity. From computer modeling of G(h), it is evident that the GTP-binding region identified here is distinct from, but interacts with, the TGase active site. Together with structural considerations of G(h) versus other GTP-binding proteins, these findings indicate that G(h) has a unique GTP-binding pocket and provide for the first time a mechanism for GTP-mediated regulation of the TGase activity of G(h).
|Authors||Iismaa, S. E.;Wu, M. J.;Nanda, N.;Church, W. B.;Graham, R. M. :|
|Publisher Name||JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=10747935|