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A comprehensive lipidomic screen of pancreatic beta-cells using mass spectroscopy defines novel features of glucose-stimulated turnover of neutral lipids, sphingolipids and plasmalogens

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Glucose promotes lipid remodelling in pancreatic beta-cells, and this is thought to contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion, but the metabolic pathways and potential signalling intermediates have not been fully elaborated. METHODS: Using mass spectrometry (MS) we quantified changes in approximately 300 lipid metabolites in MIN6 beta-cells and isolated mouse islets following 1 h stimulation with glucose. Flux through sphingolipid pathways was also assessed in (3)H-sphinganine-labelled cells using TLC. RESULTS: Glucose specifically activates the conversion of triacylglycerol (TAG) to diacylglycerol (DAG). This leads indirectly to the formation of 18:1 monoacylglycerol (MAG), via degradation of saturated/monounsaturated DAG species, such as 16:0_18:1 DAG, which are the most abundant, immediate products of glucose-stimulated TAG hydrolysis. However, 16:0-containing, di-saturated DAG species are a better direct marker of TAG hydrolysis since, unlike the 18:1-containing DAGs, they are predominately formed via this route. Using multiple reaction monitoring, we confirmed that in islets under basal conditions, 18:1 MAG is the most abundant species. We further demonstrated a novel site of glucose to enhance the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM) and galactosylceramide (GalCer). Flux and product:precursor analyses suggest regulation of the enzyme SM synthase, which would constitute a separate mechanism for localized generation of DAG in response to glucose. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) plasmalogen (P) species, specifically those containing 20:4, 22:5 and 22:6 side chains, were also diminished in the presence of glucose, whereas the more abundant phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogens were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight 18:1 MAG, GalCer, PC(P) and DAG/SM as potential contributors to metabolic stimulus-secretion coupling.

Type Journal
ISBN 2212-8778 (Linking)
Authors Pearson, G. L.; Mellett, N.; Chu, K. Y.; Boslem, E.; Meikle, P. J.; Biden, T. J.;
Publisher Name Molecular Metabolism
Published Date 2016-04-01 00:00:00
Published Volume 5
Published Issue 6
Published Pages 404-14
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27257600
Status Published In-print