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Diversification, evolution and methylation of short interspersed nuclear element families in sugar beet and related Amaranthaceae species


Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons which are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. While SINEs have been intensively studied in animals, only limited information is available about plant SINEs. We analysed 22 SINE families from seven genomes of the Amaranthaceae family and identified 34 806 SINEs, including 19 549 full-length copies. With the focus on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), we performed a comparative analysis of the diversity, genomic and chromosomal organization and the methylation of SINEs to provide a detailed insight into the evolution and age of Amaranthaceae SINEs. The lengths of consensus sequences of SINEs range from 113 nucleotides (nt) up to 224 nt. The SINEs show dispersed distribution on all chromosomes but were found with higher incidence in subterminal euchromatic chromosome regions. The methylation of SINEs is increased compared with their flanking regions, and the strongest effect is visible for cytosines in the CHH context, indicating an involvement of asymmetric methylation in the silencing of SINEs.

Type Journal
ISBN 1365-313X (Electronic) 0960-7412 (Linking)
Authors Schwichtenberg, K.; Wenke, T.; Zakrzewski, F.; Seibt, K. M.; Minoche, A.; Dohm, J. C.; Weisshaar, B.; Himmelbauer, H.; Schmidt, T.;
Publisher Name PLANT JOURNAL
Published Date 2016-01-01
Published Volume 85
Published Issue 2
Published Pages 229-44
Status Published in-print
URL link to publisher's version
OpenAccess link to author's accepted manuscript version