Cross-talk between 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and transforming growth factor-beta signaling requires binding of VDR and Smad3 proteins to their cognate DNA recognition elements
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (vitamin D) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulate diverse biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation through modulation of the expression of target genes. Members of the Smad family of proteins function as effectors of TGF-beta signaling pathways whereas the vitamin D receptor (VDR) confers vitamin D signaling. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which TGF-beta and vitamin D signaling pathways interact in the regulation of the human osteocalcin promoter. Synergistic activation of the osteocalcin gene promoter by TGF-beta and vitamin D was observed in transient transfection experiments. However, in contrast to a previous report by Yanagisawa, J., Yanagi, Y., Masuhiro, Y., Suzawa, M., Watanabe, M., Kashiwagi, K., Toriyabe, T., Kawabata, M., Miyazono, K., and Kato, S. (1999) Science, 283, 1317-1321, synergistic activation was not detectable when the osteocalcin vitamin D response element (VDRE) alone was linked to a heterologous promoter. Inclusion of the Smad binding elements (SBEs) with the VDRE in the heterologous promoter restored synergistic activation. Furthermore, this synergy was dependent on the spacing between VDRE and SBEs. The Smad3-Smad4 heterodimer was found to bind in gel shift assay to two distinct DNA segments of the osteocalcin promoter: -1030 to -989 (SBE3) and -418 to -349 (SBE1). Deletion of SBE1, which is proximal to the VDRE, but not the distal SBE3 in this promoter reporter abolished TGF-beta responsiveness and eliminated synergistic co-activation with vitamin D. Thus the molecular mechanism, whereby Smad3 and VDR mediate cross-talk between the TGF-beta and vitamin D signaling pathways, requires both a VDRE and a SBE located in close proximity to the target promoter.
|Authors||Subramaniam, N.;Leong, G. M.;Cock, T. A.;Flanagan, J. L.;Fong, C.;Eisman, J. A.;Kouzmenko, A. P. :|
|Publisher Name||JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=11278818|