Inhibition of protein kinase C delta protects rat INS-1 cells against interleukin-1beta and streptozotocin-induced apoptosis
Exposure of pancreatic beta-cells to cytokines, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), is thought to contribute to the beta-cell apoptosis that underlies the onset of type 1 diabetes. One important event triggered by IL-1beta is induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme that catalyzes intracellular generation of the cytotoxic free radical NO. We recently described a novel requirement for the protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme PKCdelta in this process. Our current aim, therefore, was to assess whether PKCdelta also plays a role in beta-cell apoptosis. As assessed by either annexin V staining or DNA fragmentation, IL-1beta caused INS-1 cells to undergo apoptosis. This was completely blocked by adenoviral overexpression of a dominant-negative, kinase-dead (KD) PKCdelta mutant. The corresponding PKCalpha virus was without effect. However, apoptosis caused by the cytotoxic agent streptozotocin (STZ), which acts independent of iNOS, was also inhibited by overexpression of PKCdeltaKD. STZ was additionally shown to activate the proteolytic enzyme caspase-3, a key biochemical effector of end-stage apoptosis. Moreover, STZ caused a caspase-dependent cleavage of PKCdelta, thereby releasing a COOH-terminal fragment corresponding to the kinase catalytic domain. Thus, proteolytic activation of PKCdelta seems to be important in the distal apoptotic pathway induced by STZ. That IL-1beta also activated caspase-3 and promoted PKCdelta cleavage suggests that this distal pathway also contributes in the apoptotic response to the cytokine. These data therefore support a dual role for PKCdelta in IL-1beta-mediated cell death: it is required for efficient NO generation through regulation of iNOS levels but also contributes to apoptotic pathways downstream of caspase activation.
|Authors||Carpenter, L.;Cordery, D.;Biden, T. J. :|
|Published Date||2002-01-01 00:00:00|