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Long-term high-fat feeding leads to severe insulin resistance but not diabetes in Wistar rats

Abstract

Although lipid excess can impair beta-cell function in vitro, short-term high-fat feeding in normal rats produces insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia. This study examines the effect of long-term (10-mo) high polyunsaturated fat feeding on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats. The high fat-fed compared with the chow-fed group was 30% heavier and 60% fatter, with approximately doubled fasting hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001) but only marginal fasting hyperglycemia (7.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 7.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Insulin sensitivity was approximately 67% lower in the high-fat group (P < 0.01). The acute insulin response to intravenous arginine was approximately double in the insulin-resistant high-fat group (P < 0.001), but that to intravenous glucose was similar in the two groups. After the intravenous glucose bolus, plasma glucose decline was slower in the high fat-fed group, confirming mild glucose intolerance. Therefore, despite severe insulin resistance, there was only a mildly elevated fasting glucose level and a relative deficiency in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; this suggests that a genetic or congenital susceptibility to beta-cell impairment is required for overt hyperglycemia to develop in the presence of severe insulin resistance.

Type Journal
ISBN 0193-1849 (Print)
Authors Chalkley, S. M.;Hettiarachchi, M.;Chisholm, D. J.;Kraegen, E. W. :
Garvan Authors Prof Ted Kraegen
Publisher Name AM J PHYSIOL-ENDOC M
Published Date 2002-01-01 00:00:00
Published Volume 282
Published Issue 6
Published Pages E1231-8
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=12006352
Status Published In-print