Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis of human GALR1 galanin receptor defines determinants of receptor subtype specificity
Human galanin is a 30 amino acid neuropeptide that elicits a range of biological activities by interaction with G protein-coupled receptors. We have generated a model of the human GALR1 galanin receptor subtype (hGALR1) based on the alpha carbon maps of frog rhodopsin and investigated the significance of potential contact residues suggested by the model using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of Phe186 within the second extracellular loop to Ala resulted in a 6-fold decrease in affinity for galanin, representing a change in free energy consistent with hydrophobic interaction. Our model suggests interaction between Phe186 of hGALR1 and Ala7 or Leu11 of galanin. Receptor subtype specificity was investigated by replacement of residues in hGALR1 with the corresponding residues in hGALR2 and use of the hGALR2-specific ligands hGalanin(2-30) and [D-Trp2]hGalanin(1-30). The His267Ile mutant receptor exhibited a pharmacological profile corresponding to that of hGALR1, suggesting that His267 is not involved in a receptor-ligand interaction. The mutation Phe115Ala resulted in a decreased binding affinity for hGalanin and for hGALR2-specific analogues, indicating Phe115 to be of structural importance to the ligand binding pocket of hGALR1 but not involved in direct ligand interaction. Analysis of Glu271Trp suggested that Glu271 of hGALR1 interacts with the N-terminus of galanin and that the Trp residue in the corresponding position in hGALR2 is involved in receptor subtype specificity of binding. Our model supports previous reports of Phe282 of hGALR1 interacting with Trp2 of galanin and His264 of hGALR1 interacting with Tyr9 of galanin.
|Authors||Church, W. B.;Jones, K. A.;Kuiper, D. A.;Shine, J.;Iismaa, T. P. :|
|Responsible Garvan Author|
|Publisher Name||Protein Eng|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=11983932|