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Associations between seven-year C-reactive protein trajectory or pack-years smoked with choroidal or retinal thicknesses in young adults


Inflammation and cigarette smoking predispose to macular diseases, and choroidal and retinal thinning. We explored the choroidal and retinal thicknesses in young adults against their 7-year C-reactive protein (CRP) level trajectory and pack-years smoked. Participants from the Raine study, a longitudinal cohort study, had serum CRP levels analysed at the 14-, 17-, and 20-year follow-ups. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to classify participants according to their 7-year CRP levels. At the 20-year follow-up (at 18-22 years old), participants completed questionnaires on their smoking history, and underwent optical coherence tomography imaging to obtain their choroidal and retinal thicknesses at the macula. Three CRP trajectories were identified: consistently low CRP levels (78% of sample), increasing (11%), or consistently high (11%). 340 and 1035 participants were included in the choroidal and retinal thickness analyses, respectively. Compared to those in the "Low" trajectory group, participants in the "Increasing" and "High" groups had 14-21 mum thinner choroids at most macular regions. Every additional pack-year smoked was linked with a 0.06-0.10 mum thinner retina at the inner and outer macular rings, suggesting a dose-dependent relationship between smoking and thinner retinas. These associations may suggest that an increased risk of future visual impairment or eye disease associated with these risk factors may be present since young adulthood.

Type Journal
ISBN 2045-2322 (Electronic) 2045-2322 (Linking)
Authors Lee, S. S.; Beales, D. J.; Chen, F. K.; Yazar, S.; Alonso-Caneiro, D.; Mackey, D. A.
Publisher Name Scientific Reports
Published Date 2021-03-31
Published Volume 11
Published Issue 1
Published Pages 6147
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-85626-3
URL link to publisher's version