Demystifying functional role of cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) peptide in control of energy homeostasis: A twenty-five year expedition
Cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide first discovered in the striatum of the rat brain. Later, the genetic sequence and function of CART peptide (CARTp) was found to be conserved among multiple mammalian species. Over the 25 years, since its discovery, CART mRNA (Cartpt) expression has been reported widely throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems underscoring its role in diverse physiological functions. Here, we review the localization and function of CARTp as it relates to energy homeostasis. We summarize the expression changes of central and peripheral Cartpt in response to metabolic states and make use of available large data sets to gain additional insights into the anatomy of the Cartpt expressing vagal neurons and their expression patterns in the gut. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the role of CARTp as an anorexigenic signal and its effect on energy expenditure and body weight control with insights from both pharmacological and transgenic animal studies. Subsequently, we discuss the role of CARTp in the pathophysiology of obesity and review important new developments towards identifying a candidate receptor for CARTp signalling. Altogether, the field of CARTp research has made rapid and substantial progress recently, and we review the case for considering CARTp as a potential therapeutic target for stemming the obesity epidemic.
|ISBN||1873-5169 (Electronic) 0196-9781 (Linking)|
|Authors||Singh, A.; de Araujo, A. M.; Krieger, J. P.; Vergara, M.; Ip, C. K.; de Lartigue, G.|
|Responsible Garvan Author|
|URL link to publisher's version||https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33757831|