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Time spent outdoors through childhood and adolescence - assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration - and risk of myopia at 20 years


PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between time spent outdoors, at particular ages in childhood and adolescence, and myopia status in young adulthood using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. METHODS: Participants of the Raine Study Generation 2 cohort had 25(OH)D concentrations measured at the 6-, 14-, 17- and 20-year follow-ups. Participants underwent cycloplegic autorefraction at age 20 years, and myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent -0.50 dioptres or more myopic. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between risk of myopia at age 20 years and age-specific 25(OH)D concentrations. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse trajectory of 25(OH)D concentrations from 6 to 20 years. RESULTS: After adjusting for sex, race, parental myopia, body mass index and studying status, myopia at 20 years was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration at 20 years (per 10 nmol/L decrease, odds ratio (aOR)=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18) and a low vitamin D status [25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] at 17 years (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.76) and 20 years (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.56), compared to those without low vitamin D status. There were no associations between 25(OH)D at younger ages and myopia. Individuals who were myopic at 20 years had a 25(OH)D concentration trajectory that declined, relative to non-myopic peers, with increasing age. Differences in 25(OH)D trajectory between individuals with and without myopia were greater among non-Caucasians compared to Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia in young adulthood was most strongly associated with recent 25(OH)D concentrations, a marker of time spent outdoors.

Type Journal
ISBN 1755-3768 (Electronic) 1755-375X (Linking)
Authors Lingham, G.; Mackey, D. A.; Zhu, K.; Lucas, R. M.; Black, L. J.; Oddy, W. H.; Holt, P.; Walsh, J. P.; Sanfilippo, P. G.; Chan She Ping-Delfos, W.; Yazar, S.
Responsible Garvan Author Dr Seyhan Yazar
Published Date 2021-09-30
Published Volume 99
Published Issue 6
Published Pages 679-687
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1111/aos.14709
URL link to publisher's version