SAMD9L autoinflammatory or ataxia pancytopenia disease mutations activate cell-autonomous translational repression
Sterile alpha motif domain-containing protein 9-like (SAMD9L) is encoded by a hallmark interferon-induced gene with a role in controlling virus replication that is not well understood. Here, we analyze SAMD9L function from the perspective of human mutations causing neonatal-onset severe autoinflammatory disease. Whole-genome sequencing of two children with leukocytoclastic panniculitis, basal ganglia calcifications, raised blood inflammatory markers, neutrophilia, anemia, thrombocytopaenia, and almost no B cells revealed heterozygous de novo SAMD9L mutations, p.Asn885Thrfs*6 and p.Lys878Serfs*13. These frameshift mutations truncate the SAMD9L protein within a domain a region of homology to the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) of APAF1, approximately 80 amino acids C-terminal to the Walker B motif. Single-cell analysis of human cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SAMD9L fusion proteins revealed that enforced expression of wild-type SAMD9L repressed translation of red fluorescent protein messenger RNA and globally repressed endogenous protein translation, cell autonomously and in proportion to the level of GFP-SAMD9L in each cell. The children's truncating mutations dramatically exaggerated translational repression even at low levels of GFP-SAMD9L per cell, as did a missense Arg986Cys mutation reported recurrently as causing ataxia pancytopenia syndrome. Autoinflammatory disease associated with SAMD9L truncating mutations appears to result from an interferon-induced translational repressor whose activity goes unchecked by the loss of C-terminal domains that may normally sense virus infection.
|ISBN||1091-6490 (Electronic) 0027-8424 (Linking)|
|Authors||Russell, A. J.; Gray, P. E.; Ziegler, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Smith, S.; Sewell, W. A.; Goodnow, C. C.|
|Publisher Name||PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA|
|URL link to publisher's version||https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34417303|