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Cognitive decline is associated with an accelerated rate of bone loss and increased fracture risk in women: a prospective study from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study


Cognitive decline and osteoporosis often coexist and some evidence suggests a causal link. However, there are no data on the longitudinal relationship between cognitive decline, bone loss and fracture risk, independent of aging. This study aimed to determine the association between: (i) cognitive decline and bone loss; and (ii) clinically significant cognitive decline (>/=3 points) on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) over the first 5 years and subsequent fracture risk over the following 10 years. A total of 1741 women and 620 men aged >/=65 years from the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study were followed from 1997 to 2013. Association between cognitive decline and (i) bone loss was estimated using mixed-effects models; and (ii) fracture risk was estimated using adjusted Cox models. Over 95% of participants had normal cognition at baseline (MMSE >/= 24). The annual % change in MMSE was similar for both genders (women -0.33, interquartile range [IQR] -0.70 to +0.00; and men -0.34, IQR: -0.99 to 0.01). After multivariable adjustment, cognitive decline was associated with bone loss in women (6.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2% to 9.9% for each percent decline in MMSE from baseline) but not men. Approximately 13% of participants experienced significant cognitive decline by year 5. In women, fracture risk was increased significantly (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.34). There were too few men to analyze. There was a significant association between cognitive decline and both bone loss and fracture risk, independent of aging, in women. Further studies are needed to determine mechanisms that link these common conditions. (c) 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

Type Journal
ISBN 1523-4681 (Electronic) 0884-0431 (Linking)
Authors Bliuc, D.; Tran, T.; Adachi, J. D.; Atkins, G. J.; Berger, C.; van den Bergh, J.; Cappai, R.; Eisman, J. A.; van Geel, T.; Geusens, P.; Goltzman, D.; Hanley, D. A.; Josse, R.; Kaiser, S.; Kovacs, C. S.; Langsetmo, L.; Prior, J. C.; Nguyen, T. V.; Solomon, L. B.; Stapledon, C.; Center, J. R.; Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study Research, Group
Published Date 2021-11-30
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1002/jbmr.4402
URL link to publisher's version