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ENZA-p trial protocol: a randomized phase II trial using prostate-specific membrane antigen as a therapeutic target and prognostic indicator in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with enzalutamide (ANZUP 1901)


OBJECTIVES: To determine the activity and safety of lutetium-177 ((177) Lu)-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-617 in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) commencing enzalutamide, who are at high risk of early progression, and to identify potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers from imaging, blood and tissue. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: ENZA-p (ANZUP 1901) is an open-label, randomized, two-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Participants are randomly assigned (1:1) to treatment with enzalutamide 160 mg daily alone or enzalutamide plus (177) Lu-PSMA-617 7.5 GBq on Days 15 and 57. Two additional (177) Lu-PSMA-617 doses are allowed, informed by Day-92 Gallium-68 ((68) Ga)-PSMA positron emission tomography (PET; up to four doses in total). The primary endpoint is prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival (PFS). Other major endpoints include radiological PFS, PSA response rate, overall survival, health-related quality of life, adverse events and cost-effectiveness. Key eligibility criteria include: biochemical and/or clinical progression; (68) Ga-PSMA PET-avid disease; no prior androgen signalling inhibitor, excepting abiraterone; no prior chemotherapy for mCRPC; and >/=2 high-risk features for early enzalutamide failure. Assessments are 4 weekly during study treatment, then 6 weekly until radiographic progression. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) are used to assess imaging conducted every 12 weeks, (68) Ga-PSMA PET at baseline, Days 15 and 92, and at progression, and (18) F-fluorine deoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) PET at baseline and progression. Translational samples include blood (and optional biopsies) at baseline, Day 92, and first progression. Correlative studies include identification of prognostic and predictive biomarkers from (68) Ga-PSMA and (18) F-FDG PET/CT, circulating tumour cells and circulating tumour DNA. The trial will enrol 160 participants, providing 80% power with a two-sided type-1 error rate of 5% to detect a hazard ratio of 0.625 assuming a median PSA-PFS of 5 months with enzalutamide alone. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The combination of (177) Lu-PSMA-617 and enzalutamide may be synergistic. ENZA-p will determine the safety and efficacy of the combination in addition to developing predictive and prognostic biomarkers to better guide treatment decisions.

Type Journal
ISBN 1464-410X (Electronic) 1464-4096 (Linking)
Authors Emmett, L.; Subramaniam, S.; Joshua, A. M.; Crumbaker, M.; Martin, A.; Zhang, A. Y.; Rana, N.; Langford, A.; Mitchell, J.; Yip, S.; Francis, R.; Hofman, M. S.; Sandhu, S.; Azad, A.; Gedye, C.; McJannett, M.; Stockler, M. R.; Davis, I. D.; Australian, New Zealand Urogenital Prostate Cancer Trials Group the Enza-p investigators
Publisher Name BJU International
Published Date 2021-11-30
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1111/bju.15491
URL link to publisher's version