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Sex Differences in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Interaction With Genetics and Environment


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explore the sex-specific interaction of genetics and the environment on the clinical course and outcomes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). RECENT FINDINGS: Women account for approximately one-third of patients in specialist HCM centres and reported in observational studies. As a result, evidence informing clinical guideline recommendations is based predominantly on risk factors and outcomes seen in men. However, disease progression appears to be different between the sexes. Women present at a more advanced stage of disease, are older at diagnosis, have higher symptom burden, carry greater risk for heart failure and are at greater risk of mortality compared to men. Women are more likely to be gene-positive, while men are more likely to be gene-negative. The risk of sudden cardiac death and access to specialised care do not differ between the sexes. Reporting sex-disaggregated results is essential to identify the mechanisms leading to sex differences in HCM.

Type Journal
ISBN 1546-9549 (Electronic) 1546-9530 (Linking)
Authors Butters, A.; Lakdawala, N. K.; Ingles, J.
Responsible Garvan Author A/Prof Jodie Ingles
Publisher Name Current Heart Failure Reports
Published Date 2021-10-31
Published Volume 18
Published Issue 5
Published Pages 264-273
Status Published in-print
DOI 10.1007/s11897-021-00526-x
URL link to publisher's version