Neuropeptide Y and energy homeostasis: insights from Y receptor knockout models
A complex system has evolved to regulate food intake and to maintain energy homeostasis. A series of short-term hormonal and neural signals that derive from the gastrointestinal tract, such as cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY-(3-36), recently discovered to regulate meal size. Others such as ghrelin initiate meals, and insulin and leptin, together with circulating nutrients, indicate long-term energy stores. All these signals act on central nervous system sites which converge on the hypothalamus, an area that contains a large number of peptide and other neurotransmitters that influence food intake with neuropeptide Y (NPY) being one of the most prominent ones. Five Y receptors are known which mediate the action of neuropeptide Y and its two other family members, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide. Elevated neuropeptide Y expression in the hypothalamus leads to the development of obesity and its related phenotypes, Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The limited availability of specific pharmacological tools and the considerable number of Y receptors have made it difficult to delineate their individual contributions to the regulation of energy homeostasis. However, recent studies analysing transgenic and knockout neuropeptide Y and Y receptor mouse models have started to unravel some of the individual functions of these Y receptors potentially also helping to develop novel therapeutics for a variety of physiological disorders including obesity.
|Authors||Herzog, H. :|
|Publisher Name||EUR J PHARMACOL|
|Published Date||2003-01-01 00:00:00|