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Akt mediates insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Ndrg2: evidence for cross-talk with protein kinase C theta


The protein kinase Akt mediates several metabolic and mitogenic effects of insulin, whereas activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms has been implicated in the inhibition of insulin action. We have previously shown that both PKC and PKCepsilon are activated in skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant high fat-fed rats, and to identify potential substrates for these kinases, we incubated recombinant PKC isoforms with rat muscle fractions in vitro. PKC specifically phosphorylated a 48-kDa protein that was subsequently identified by mass spectrometry as Ndrg2. Ndrg2 is highly related to N-Myc downstream-regulated protein 1, which has been linked to stress responses, cell proliferation, and differentiation, although Ndrg2 itself is not repressed by N-Myc. Ndrg2 contains several potential phosphorylation sites, including three Akt consensus sequences. Ndrg2 phosphorylation was enhanced in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled C2C12 muscle cells co-overexpressing either PKC or Akt. Phosphorylation of Ndrg2 was examined further using a phospho (Ser/Thr) Akt substrate antibody. Insulin increased Ndrg2 phosphorylation in C2C12 cells in a wortmannin- and palmitate-inhibitable manner, whereas rapamycin, PD98059, and bisindoylmaleimide I had no effect, supporting a direct role for Akt. Mutation of Ndrg2 indicated that Thr-348 is the major phosphorylation site detected by the antibody and that Akt stimulates phosphorylation of this site, whereas PKC phosphorylates Ser-332. PKC overexpression, however, diminished the effect of insulin on Thr-348 phosphorylation without reducing Akt activation, suggesting that this is mediated through phosphorylation of Ndrg2 at Ser-332. Our data identify Ndrg2 as a novel insulin-dependent phosphoprotein and suggest that PKC may inhibit insulin action in part by reducing its phosphorylation by Akt.

Type Journal
ISBN 0021-9258 (Print)
Authors Burchfield, J. G.;Lennard, A. J.;Narasimhan, S.;Hughes, W. E.;Wasinger, V. C.;Corthals, G. L.;Okuda, T.;Kondoh, H.;Biden, T. J.;Schmitz-Peiffer, C. :
Published Date 2004-01-01
Published Volume 279
Published Issue 18
Published Pages 18623-32
Status Published in-print
URL link to publisher's version