Inflammation, insulin resistance, and adiposity: a study of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with insulin resistance, adiposity, and type 2 diabetes. Whether inflammation causes insulin resistance or is an epiphenomenon of obesity remains unresolved. We aimed to determine whether first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects differ in insulin sensitivity from control subjects without a family history of diabetes, whether first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects and control subjects differ in CRP, adiponectin, and complement levels, and whether CRP is related to insulin sensitivity independently of adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 19 young normoglycemic nonobese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects and 22 control subjects who were similar for age, sex, and BMI. Insulin sensitivity (glucose infusion rate [GIR]) was measured by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry determined total and abdominal adiposity. Magnetic resonance imaging measured abdominal adipose tissue volumes. RESULTS: First-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects had a 20% lower GIR than the control group (51.8 +/- 3.9 vs. 64.9 +/- 4.6 micromol x min(-1) x kg fat-free mass(-1), P = 0.04). However, first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes and those without a family history of diabetes had normal and comparable levels of CRP, adiponectin, and complement proteins. When the cohort was examined as a whole, CRP was inversely related to GIR (r = -0.33, P = 0.04) and adiponectin (r = -0.34, P = 0.03) and positively related to adiposity (P < 0.04). However, CRP was not related to GIR independently of fat mass. In contrast to C3 (r = 0.41, P = 0.009) and factor B (r = 0.43, P = 0.005), CRP was unrelated to factor D. CONCLUSIONS: The insulin-resistant state is not associated with changes in inflammatory markers or complement proteins in subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Our study confirms a strong relationship between CRP and fat mass. Increasing adiposity and insulin resistance may interact to raise CRP levels.
|Authors||Kriketos, A. D.;Greenfield, J. R.;Peake, P. W.;Furler, S. M.;Denyer, G. S.;Charlesworth, J. A.;Campbell, L. V. :|
|Responsible Garvan Author||Prof Jerry Greenfield|
|Publisher Name||DIABETES CARE|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15277436|