The BAFF/APRIL system: an important player in systemic rheumatic diseases
Many rheumatic diseases have an autoimmune basis, characterized by organ-specific inflammation and tissue destruction. Diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjogren's syndrome often associate with abnormal B cell function and the production of various autoantibodies. B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) is a B cell survival factor essential for B cell maturation, but also contributes to autoimmunity when overexpressed in mice. In addition, elevated levels of BAFF have been detected in the serum of patients with various rheumatic diseases, suggesting a role for this factor in these pathologies. BAFF has additional functions that may be important in rheumatic diseases. For instance, excess BAFF leads to the expansion of a subset of B cells named marginal zone (MZ) B cells, a cell type able to activate naive T cells. In addition, expansion of the MZ B cell population correlates with certain autoimmune diseases, and these cells have been detected in inflamed tissues in mice and humans. Recently, BAFF was shown to also stimulate T cell activation, an aspect that may also contribute to autoimmunity. Finally, BAFF has emerged as a potent survival factor for B cell lymphomas and as such may be involved in promoting B cell cancers. This result possibly offers an explanation for the occasional lymphoma complication observed in a subset of patients with certain rheumatic diseases, particularly Sjogren's syndrome. New elements about BAFF biology indicate that this factor may be involved in a wider range of pathologies than first anticipated, and inhibitors of this factor are likely to provide attractive new treatments for rheumatic diseases and B cell lymphomas.
|Authors||Mackay, F.;Sierro, F.;Grey, S. T.;Gordon, T. P. :|
|Publisher Name||Curr Dir Autoimmun|
|URL link to publisher's version||http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15564724|