Nur77 regulates lipolysis in skeletal muscle cells. Evidence for cross-talk between the beta-adrenergic and an orphan nuclear hormone receptor pathway
Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for approximately 40% of total body weight and 50% of energy expenditure and is a primary site of glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation. Consequently, muscle has a significant role in insulin sensitivity, obesity, and the blood-lipid profile. Excessive caloric intake is sensed by the brain and induces beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR)-mediated adaptive thermogenesis. Beta-AR null mice develop severe obesity on a high fat diet. However, the target gene(s), target tissues(s), and molecular mechanism involved remain obscure. We observed that 30-60 min of beta-AR agonist (isoprenaline) treatment of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells strikingly activated (>100-fold) the expression of the mRNA encoding the nuclear hormone receptor, Nur77. In contrast, the expression of other nuclear receptors that regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was not induced. Stable transfection of Nur77-specific small interfering RNAs (siNur77) into skeletal muscle cells repressed endogenous Nur77 mRNA expression. Moreover, we observed attenuation of gene and protein expression associated with the regulation of energy expenditure and lipid homeostasis, for example AMP-activated protein kinase gamma3, UCP3, CD36, adiponectin receptor 2, GLUT4, and caveolin-3. Attenuation of Nur77 expression resulted in decreased lipolysis. Finally, in concordance with the cell culture model, injection and electrotransfer of siNur77 into mouse tibialis cranialis muscle resulted in the repression of UCP3 mRNA expression. This study demonstrates regulatory cross-talk between the nuclear hormone receptor and beta-AR signaling pathways. Moreover, it suggests Nur77 modulates the expression of genes that are key regulators of skeletal muscle lipid and energy homeostasis. In conclusion, we speculate that Nur77 agonists would stimulate lipolysis and increase energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and suggest selective activators of Nur77 may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of obesity.
|Authors||Maxwell, M. A.;Cleasby, M. E.;Harding, A.;Stark, A.;Cooney, G. J.;Muscat, G. E. :|
|Publisher Name||J BIOL CHEM|
|Published Date||2005-01-01 00:00:00|